Seham Ali Shaban has completed his PhD at the age of 41 years from Ain Shams University and postdoctoral studies from Egyptian Petroleum Research institute. He is the Member of Catalysts Characterization Laboratory. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternate energy resources becomes more imperative and environment friendly. Used vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of used vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel) was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid has been selected for the synthesis of biodiesel. The imidazolium tetrachloroferrate [bmim][FeCl4] ionic liquid was prepared by direct combination between imidazolium cation and FeCl3. The imidazolium chloride and imidazolium tetrachloroferrate ionic liquid were characterized by using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV. The factors affecting the transesterification process include: reaction time, reaction temperature, weight of ionic liquid catalyst, methanol:oil molar ratio and reusability of the ionic liquid catalyst were studied. The yield was reached to 99 wt.% under the optimum conditions of (1:8.33 catalyst to used vegetable oil weight ratio, 12:1 methanol:oil molar ratio, reaction temperature of 55ºC and reaction time of 8 h). Under these optimum conditions, the produced biodiesel is nearly the same as the commercial biodiesel with 7.8 Cp dynamic viscosity, 0.8925 g/cc density, 120oC flash point, -6oC pour point and 125 Iodine value. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 7 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology.
Professor A.Y. Zekri received his B.Sc., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Southern California. He has spent more than two decades in the petroleum industry. Professor Zekri worked as a consultant to the management committees of Waha Oil Co., and Agip Oil Company. He has authored and/or co-authored more than 90 papers on new developments and technical issues in the areas of improved oil recovery, flow through porous media, and environmental aspects of petroleum production, petroleum contracts, and Enhanced Oil Recovery. He has edited and refereed technical papers in widely respected journals. Prof. Zekri has completed a number of research projects in the area of IOR/EOR to UAE and International Petroleum Industries. Professor Zekri is currently working as Coordinator of Oil and Gas Technologies, Emirates Center for Energy and Environment Research and Professor of petroleum engineering at the United Arab Emirates University.
The effect of injection brine salinity on the displacement efficiency of low water salinity flooding was investigated using sea water at 35,000 ppm, and two field injection waters, namely, Um-Eradhuma (UER) at 171,585 ppm and Simsima (SIM) at 243,155 ppm. The salinity of the employed waters was varied from original salinity to 1000 ppm and used in the displacement of oil in selected core samples. The results of this set of experiments revealed that UER salinity of 5000 ppm is the optimum system for the candidate reservoir. Um-Eradhuma original water and its optimum water were then used in this project as the high and low salinity waters in the CO2-WAG flooding experiments. Displacement efficiencies were evaluated under three injection modes: carbon dioxide WAG miscible flooding (CO2-WAG, 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2), continuous CO2 injection (CCO2I), and waterflood (WF). The WAG performance parameters, such as secondary and tertiary displacement efficiencies, CO2 flood utilization factor, and CO2 performance during different WAG flood cycles were determined. To insure miscibility condition between the injected gas and the employed oil, all of the flooding experiments were conducted at 3200 psia (which is 300 psia above the minimum miscibility pressure of CO2 & used oil) and 250 °F. Experimental results indicated that core length is a critical parameter in determining the optimum WAG process, and that a minimum core length of 29 cm is required to insure the generation of miscibility before breakthrough in CO2-WAG flooding experiments. On the other hand, core length had no effect on the performance of the low salinity flooding experiments. Using single core flooding low salinity CO2-WAG of 1:2 flooding produced an improvement in the displacement efficiency of 29% over the high salinity system. Also, composite core flooding experiments showed that the high salinity CO2-2:1 WAG achieved a displacement efficiency of 98%. These results indicate that achieving miscibility at the reservoir conditions is the dominant mechanism and that low salinity will have no major effect on the displacement efficiency of CO2-Miscible WAG flooding. Results also indicate that oil recovery during different CO2-WAG cycles is a function of WAG ratios.